What is Frame ?

Frame/iFrame is nothing but another webelement in html page, which displays another part of webpage. We can handle frames/iframes present in the webpage using browser.switchTo() command in protractor .

If you look at the DOM structure of a page that contains an iframe you will never find inner content of the iframe. And you won't be able to interact with it via the DOM. We have to switch into frame to see the elements present in the frame.

Below frame page is present at : https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver frames-example-selenium-webdriver

Difference between Frames and iFrames

Both Frame and iFrame are treated similar manner with protractor, Protractor doesnot differentiate them, so e can handle both of them in same way.

Frame is a HTML tag and used to divide the same web page or same domain into various frames/windows. Used as <frame> tag, it specifies each frame within a frameset tag. Frames are used along with frameset, frameset contains the multiple frames.


<frameset rows = "10%,80%,10%">
	<frame id= "first" name = "top" src = "/html/top_frame.htm" />
	<frame name = "main" src = "/html/main_frame.htm" />
	<frame name = "side" src = "/html/side_frame.htm" />
</frameset>
						   
							


Iframe as <iframe> is also a tag used in HTML but it specifies an inline frame which means it is used to embed not only same domain but also other webpages within the current HTML document. It is like a Television, it displays a thing which is present somewhere else.


							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" src="demo.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							


  • Frame requires a frameset, but iframes donot requires framesets.
  • Placement of Frames are bit difficult compared with iFrames
  • Adjusting the size and width of the Frame is difficult when compared with iFrame.
  • Frames cannot contain nested frames (frame inside frame) but iFrames can contain nested iFrames.
  • HTML5 doesnot support Frames but supports iFrames.

Developers try to avoid using Iframes as these are external documents (webpages), so there is chance of Phishing.

Presence of Frame inprotractor

It is important for tester to check whether an element is inside a iframe/frame or just on webpage. If element is inside a frame, then we have to switch into frame to access the element. 1. Right click on the page (not on the element) which part you want to check .

2. On the right click options you can find This Frame Option, if this option is present then there is a iframe else there is no iframe frame-selenium-webdriver 3. Webpage without frame. noframe-selenium-webdriver

Ways to select dropdown option

How to find iframe/frame in protractor

We can find the iframe/frame using right click in manual testing, finding the iframe/frame in protractor is little tricky one.

Below are the ways to find the iframe/frame:

  • Using Element (widely used)
  • Using Index


Using Element : Most of the time there will be multiple iframe/frame and few of them may share same id and name, so in such scenarios we cannot use id or name for finding the frame. So find the iframe/frame uniquely we have to find it as a element, the way we follow for normal elements.

Here we can use locators ( except id, name, as we used already) like classname, xpath css. We cannot use link text and partial link text as these two are only applicable for anchor tag <a>.

We also should refrain using tagname locator as there are multiple frame so we may not get the unique element.

Lets consider the below iframes, and xpath for this iframe would be :

  • Xpath for 1st iFrame : //iframe[@src='demo.html']
  • Xpath for 2nd iFrame : //iframe[@class='second']

							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" src="demo.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" class='second' src="width.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" src="width.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							
							// switch to 1st frame
							browser.switchTo().frame(element(by.xpath("//iframe[@src='demo.html']")).getWebElement())
							


Using Index : protractor assigns index to every frame present in the page, using index is the least preferred way of find the frame as in future frame position may change when development introduce another frame in between


							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" src="demo.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" class='second' src="width.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							<iframe id="ifr" name="demo" src="width.html" height="200" width="300"></iframe>
							
							// switch to 1st frame
							browser.switchTo().frame(1)
							


Handle Hidden division Pop Up / Calender Pop up using Protractor

Handle single iFrame in protractor

If we want to access any element inside a iframe in protractor, we must find and switch to that iframe and access the element, protractor throws NoSuchElementFound Exception unless we switch to the iframe.

single-frame-example-selenium-webdriver

Scenario : Fetch the value from the Topic (page level) and write it to topic textbar present in iframe 1

Page Url : https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver
single-frame-source-selenium-webdriver

Steps to solve scenario : 1. Open browser and navigate to : https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver


								// open webpage
								browser.get("https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver");
								


2. Get the text from the Topic element and store it in a string.


								// resolve promise to get text value
								element(by.xpath("//label/span")).getText().then(function(textValue){
									//todo
								})
								


3. Switch to the Frame1, frame have attribute id='frame1' and which is unique, so we can use id way switching to the frame.


								// switch to frame1
								browser.switchTo().frame(element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement());
								


4. Find the Text bar in the frame1 and enter the stored text.


								// set the value of the textbar to the value stored
								element(by.xpath("//input[@type='text']")).sendKeys(textValue);
								


Complete program for single frame handling


								import { browser, element, by, ExpectedConditions, protractor} from 'protractor'
								import { Alert } from 'selenium-webdriver';
								describe('Protractor Typescript Demo', function() {
									browser.ignoreSynchronization = true; // for non-angular websites
									it('iFrame operation', function() {
										// browser.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10000)
										browser.get("https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver");
										// resolve the promise
										element(by.xpath("//label/span")).getAttribute("innerText").then(function(textValue){
											// switch to frame1
											browser.switchTo().frame(element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement());
											// set the value of the textbar to the value stored
											element(by.xpath("//input[@type='text']")).sendKeys(textValue);
										})
									});
								});
								

Handling nested iFrame in protractor

Sometimes we will have multiple and nested iframes in a webpage, if we have nested iframes we have to switch to iframe inside frame.

We can access only content of frame when we are inside a frame, we cannot access outside the frame or inside any other frame.

Scenario : Check the check box present in the iframe 3 , iframe 3 is present inside iframe 1.

Page Url : https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver
nested-frame-selenium-webdriver

Solution to the scenario : Ignoring routine steps (open browser, page, wait)
1. Find the iframe1 and store it as webelement.


							//find the frame1 and store it in webelement
							let frame1:WebElement = element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement();
							


2. Switch to iframe 1 using switchTo().frame() command


							// switch to iframe1
							browser.switchTo().frame(frame1);
							


3. Find the iframe 3 and switch to it.


							// find the frame 3
							let frame3:WebElement = element(by.xpath("//iframe[@id='frame3']")).getWebElement();
							// switch to frame 3
							browser.switchTo().frame(frame3);
							


4. Find the Check box and click it if it is not already checked.


							// find the checkbox
							let checkbox:WebElement = element(by.xpath("//input[@type='checkbox']"));
							checkbox.isSelected().then(function(checked){
								// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
								if(! checked){
									checkbox.click();
								}
							})
							
							


Complete program to handle nested text bar.


							import { browser, element, by, ExpectedConditions, protractor} from 'protractor'
							import { Alert, WebElement } from 'selenium-webdriver';
							describe('Protractor Typescript Demo', function() {
								browser.ignoreSynchronization = true; // for non-angular websites
								it('iFrame operation', function() {
									browser.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10000)
									// open webpage
									browser.get("https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver");
									//find the frame1 and store it in webelement
									let frame1:WebElement = element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement();
									// switch to frame1
									browser.switchTo().frame(frame1);
									// find the frame 3
									let frame3:WebElement = element(by.xpath("//iframe[@id='frame3']")).getWebElement();
									// switch to frame 3
									browser.switchTo().frame(frame3);
									// find the checkbox
									let checkbox:WebElement  = element(by.xpath("//input[@type='checkbox']"));
									// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
									checkbox.isSelected().then(function(checked){
										// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
										if(! checked){
											checkbox.click();
										}
									})
								});
							});
							

Navigate to Parent Frame


Switch to Parent Frame : switchToParentFrame() method in protractor switches the control to outer position(one place) in web page, the outer position could be a frame or page level.

In simple terms, switchToParentFrame() method exits the current frame.

After performing a particular task we have move out of the frame, otherwise we cannot access the elements outside the frame.

protractor provides browser.switchToParentFrame() method to move out of the current frame, once we move out of the frame we can access the elements outside that frame but we cannot access the elements inside that frame

Scenario :

  • 1. Check the check box present in the iframe 3, iframe 3 is present inside iframe 1
  • 2. After checking the check box, move back to iframe 1 and enter "selenium" text in the topic textbar
  • 3. Now move back to page level and compare the topic(header) text is not equal to "selenium webdriver"
Page Url : https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver
parent-frame-exampe-selenium-webdriver


Solution to Scenario : skipping few steps which were covered in previous scenario.

1. Switch to iframe 1 and switch to iframe 3, check the checkbox

2. Now we have to navigate back to frame 1 by using browser.switchToParentFrame() method


							// navigate to parent frame, which is iframe 1
							browser.switchToParentFrame();
							


3. Find the textbar and enter the "selenium" text" in it.


							// set the value of the textbar to the value stored
							element(by.xpath("//input[@type='text']")).sendKeys("selenium");
							


4. Now we have to navigate back to page by using browser.switchToParentFrame() method


							// navigate to parent, which is page
							browser.switchToParentFrame();
							


5. Find the topic header element and fetch the text.


							// store the text value 
							element(By.xpath("//label/span")).getText().then(function(textValue){
								//todo
							});
							


6. Compare the topic text with expected value "selenium webdriver"


							if(textValue === "selenium webdriver"){
								System.out.println("Topic value is equal to 'selenium webdriver'");
							}
							


Complete program to use parent frame method


							import { browser, element, by, ExpectedConditions, protractor} from 'protractor'
							import { Alert, WebElement } from 'selenium-webdriver';
							describe('Protractor Typescript Demo', function() {
								browser.ignoreSynchronization = true; // for non-angular websites
								it('iFrame operation', function() {
									browser.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10000)
									// open webpage
									browser.get("https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver");
									//find the frame1 and store it in webelement
									let frame1:WebElement = element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement();
									// switch to frame1
									browser.switchTo().frame(frame1);
									// find the frame 3
									let frame3:WebElement = element(by.xpath("//iframe[@id='frame3']")).getWebElement();
									// switch to frame 3
									browser.switchTo().frame(frame3);
									// find the checkbox
									let checkbox:WebElement  = element(by.xpath("//input[@type='checkbox']"));
									// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
									checkbox.isSelected().then(function(checked){
										// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
										if(! checked){
											checkbox.click();
										}
									})
									// navigate to parent frame, which is frame 1
									browser.switchToParentFrame();
									// set the value of the textbar to the value stored
									browser.findElement(by.xpath("//input[@type='text']")).sendKeys("selenium");
									// navigate to parent, which is page
									browser.switchToParentFrame();
									// store the text value 
									element(by.xpath("//label/span")).getText().then(function(textValue){
										//verify the value matches or not
										if(textValue === "selenium webdriver"){
											console.log("Topic value is equal to 'selenium webdriver'");
										}
									});
								});
							});
							

Default Content


Default Content : switchTo().defaultContent() method exits all the iframes and the places the protractor control at the page level where as switchToParentFrame() method exits the current iframe.

Once we reach page level we cannot access any elements inside the iframe unless we switch to it.

frames-example-selenium-webdriver

Scenario : Check the check box(frame 3), and select the 'Avatar' option from the Animals dropdown(frame 2).

Page Url : https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver default-content-frames-selenium-webdriver

Solution to the scenario :
1. switch to frame 1 and switch to frame 3
2. Check the checkbox
3. Now exit from all the frames using switchTo().defaultContent()


										// navigate to page level
										browser.switchTo().defaultContent();
										


4. Switch to iframe 2


										//switch to frame2
										browser.switchTo().frame(frame2);
										


5. Find the Animals dropdown and store it in WebElement type variable.


										//find the dropdown
										element(by.tagName("select"));
										


6. Handle the dropdown using clicks.


										//click the 'avatar' option
										element(by.xpath("//option[text()='Avatar']")).click()
										


Complete program for default content in protractor


										import { browser, element, by, ExpectedConditions, protractor} from 'protractor'
										import { Alert, WebElement } from 'selenium-webdriver';
										describe('Protractor Typescript Demo', function() {
											browser.ignoreSynchronization = true; // for non-angular websites
											it('iFrame operation', function() {
												browser.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10000)
												// open webpage
												browser.get("https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver");
												//find the frame1 and store it in webelement
												let frame1:WebElement = element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement();
												// switch to frame1
												browser.switchTo().frame(frame1);
												// find the frame 3
												let frame3:WebElement = element(by.xpath("//iframe[@id='frame3']")).getWebElement();
												// switch to frame 3
												browser.switchTo().frame(frame3);
												// find the checkbox
												let checkbox:WebElement  = element(by.xpath("//input[@type='checkbox']"));
												// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
												checkbox.isSelected().then(function(checked){
													// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
													if(! checked){
														checkbox.click();
													}
												})
												// navigate to page level
												browser.switchTo().defaultContent();
												//switch to frame2
												browser.switchTo().frame("frame2");
												//find the dropdown
												element(by.tagName("select")).click()
												
												//click the 'avatar' option
												element(by.xpath("//option[text()='Avatar']")).click()
											}
										}
										

We can write the above program in switch to parent Frame way as well


										import { browser, element, by, ExpectedConditions, protractor} from 'protractor'
										import { Alert, WebElement } from 'selenium-webdriver';
										describe('Protractor Typescript Demo', function() {
											browser.ignoreSynchronization = true; // for non-angular websites
											it('iFrame operation', function() {
												browser.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10000)
												// open webpage
												browser.get("https://chercher.tech/practice/frames-example-selenium-webdriver");
												//find the frame1 and store it in webelement
												let frame1:WebElement = element(by.id("frame1")).getWebElement();
												// switch to frame1
												browser.switchTo().frame(frame1);
												// find the frame 3
												let frame3:WebElement = element(by.xpath("//iframe[@id='frame3']")).getWebElement();
												// switch to frame 3
												browser.switchTo().frame(frame3);
												// find the checkbox
												let checkbox:WebElement  = element(by.xpath("//input[@type='checkbox']"));
												// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
												checkbox.isSelected().then(function(checked){
													// if check box is not selected then click the checkbox
													if(! checked){
														checkbox.click();
													}
												})
												// navigate to parent frame, which is frame 1
												browser.switchToParentFrame();
												// set the value of the textbar to the value stored
												element(by.xpath("//input[@type='text']")).sendKeys("selenium");
												// navigate to parent, which is page
												browser.switchToParentFrame();
												// store the text value 
												element(by.xpath("//label/span")).getText().then(function(textValue){
													//verify the value matches or not
													if(textValue === "selenium webdriver"){
														console.log("Topic value is equal to 'selenium webdriver'");
													}
												});
												//switch to frame2
												browser.switchTo().frame(element(by.id("frame2")).getWebElement());
												
												//find the dropdown
												element(by.tagName("select")).click()
												
												//click the 'avatar' option
												element(by.xpath("//option[text()='Avatar']")).click()
											}
										}
										

Possible Routes of iFrame Navigation

Below images explains the possible routes of the iFrame navigation. possible-routes-selenium-webdriver

Protractor Interview Questions

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