PW0-270 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Exam Set 6

What is indicated to a QoS AP when a QoS STA sets U-APSD Flag bits to 1 in (Re) Association frames?


Options are :

  • Which access categories require admission control
  • Which access categories are both trigger-enabled and delivery-enabled
  • Which user priorities require use of a TSPEC
  • Which user priorities are mapped to access categories

Answer : Which access categories are both trigger-enabled and delivery-enabled

PW0-104 Wireless LAN Administration Practice Exam Set 1

As it pertains to HT L-SIG TXOP Protection, what statement is true?


Options are :

  • An L-SIG TXOP protected frame exchange sequence always begins with an RTS/CTS or a CTS-to-Self.
  • Support for L-SIG TXOP Protection is indicated by HT stations in the L-SIG field of the PLCP header of HT-mixed format frames.
  • L-SIG TXOP Protection is specified for the purpose of protecting OFDM (802.11a/g) and HT-OFDM (802.11n) transmissions from HR/DSSS stations.
  • Support for L-SIG TXOP Protection is indicated in the HT Capabilities Info field of (re)association request frames sent by ERP, OFDM, and HT-OFDM stations.

Answer : An L-SIG TXOP protected frame exchange sequence always begins with an RTS/CTS or a CTS-to-Self.

WMM-PS trigger frames can be what type of IEEE 802.11 frames? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • Reassociation
  • CTS
  • QoS Null
  • QoS Data

Answer : QoS Null QoS Data

Given: Your network consists of HT and ERP access points, and you are implementing VoWiFi with support for U-APSD. When an ERP handset operating in WMM Power Save mode with a ReceiveDTIMs parameter of TRUE receives a Beacon containing a DTIM indicating queued broadcast traffic, what task is the handset required to perform?


Options are :

  • The handset must send a PS-Poll frame to the access point for every broadcast frame it receives with the More Data bit set to one.
  • The handset must broadcast a CTS-to-Self frame indicating the station's need to control the medium long enough to receive all of the broadcast frames.
  • The handset is to remain awake to receive the broadcast frame(s) following the Beacon that contains the DTIM.
  • The handset must arbitrate for the medium and immediately issue an RTS directed to the access point with the NAV set to a value of 32,768.

Answer : The handset is to remain awake to receive the broadcast frame(s) following the Beacon that contains the DTIM.

PW0-105 Certified Wireless Network Administrator Exam Set 1

Given: Before installing a Wi-Fi network, ABC Company performed a spectrum analysis looking for problems. The 2.4 GHz RF spectrum looked like Image-A. After installing an ERP WLAN, ABC Company performed another spectrum analysis during business hours. The 2.4 GHz RF spectrum then looked like Image-B close to an AP on channel 1. Now the 2.4 GHz RF spectrum looks like Image-C and access points and clients can no longer communicate on channel 1. What is happening on channel 1?


Options are :

  • The access point's antenna connectors have been tampered with, causing "spike and shear" RF transmissions that are not compatible with the OFDM PHY format. For that reason, client devices cannot receive the AP's transmissions without error.
  • Stronger transmissions from licensed 2.4 GHz users, such as HAM operators, are compressing the transmissions from the channel 1 access points into the lower portion of the band.
  • A high-power, narrowband RF interference source on channel 1 is causing the CCA energydetects(ED) function on 802.11 devices to indicate a busy medium because the signal source is above the ED threshold.
  • The shape of the signals in images B and C indicates that a licensed user in this frequency range has enabled the "guard bands" in an effort to restrict local interference with other systems.

Answer : A high-power, narrowband RF interference source on channel 1 is causing the CCA energydetects(ED) function on 802.11 devices to indicate a busy medium because the signal source is above the ED threshold.

With what access category's parameters are WLAN multicast video frames transmitted when the EDCAF is in use by the transmitting station?


Options are :

  • AC_VO
  • AC_VI
  • AC_BE
  • AC_BE

Answer : AC_BE

Given: The exhibit shows a small network environment with dual-band APs. What is true of the network shown in this spectrum analyzer trace?


Options are :

  • There are at least three APs operating in this environment. They are operating on channels 149, 153, and 161.
  • Only one AP in this network is configured to use the upper UNII band (UNII-3). All other APs are in lower 5 GHz channels.
  • There are two 40 MHz BSSs in this environment. One AP has some 40 MHz traffic while the other AP has no client traffic.
  • Two 802.11a APs are near the spectrum analyzer and are heavily utilized on channels 149 and 153.

Answer : There are two 40 MHz BSSs in this environment. One AP has some 40 MHz traffic while the other AP has no client traffic.

PW0-270 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Exam Set 2

Your wireless network troubleshooting kit includes an antenna with the following specifications:Gain: 5 dBi Azimuth Beamwidth: 55 degrees Elevation Beamwidth: 50 degrees Frequency Range: 2.4 - 2.5 GHz and 4.9 - 5.9 GHz Polarization: Linear Impedance: 50 Ohms For what aspect of network troubleshooting would this antenna be most useful?


Options are :

  • Identifying problems with Fresnel zone clearance in long range (10+ miles / 16+ km) point-to-point links
  • Capturing BSS-wide CRC error and retry statistics in most indoor WLAN environments
  • Increasing resolution bandwidth (RBW) on a spectrum analyzer to improve signature identification features
  • Finding the physical location of an interfering transmitter to identify and remove the source

Answer : Finding the physical location of an interfering transmitter to identify and remove the source

Many access points support IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging. When analyzing a WLAN system using IEEE 802.1Q tags, where can the VLAN tag number be seen?


Options are :

  • In the Sequence Control field of the MSDU
  • In the Ethernet header on the wired port of the access point
  • In the Frame Control field of the MPDU header
  • In the PLCP header's Service field

Answer : In the Ethernet header on the wired port of the access point

Given: ABC Company recorded the 2.4 GHz band with a spectrum analyzer prior to installing their ERP WLAN. Image-A is how the band appeared prior to the WLAN installation. Image-B is how the band appears now, and all channels on their WLAN have ceased to function. What is the best explanation as to why their WLAN is no longer functioning properly?


Options are :

  • A manual site survey tool is actively testing the throughput of their WLAN.
  • A wideband RF power source is corrupting all IEEE 802.11 transmissions.
  • A malfunctioning IEEE 802.11 OFDM radio card is transmitting continuously.
  • A new microwave oven was installed in the cafeteria.

Answer : A wideband RF power source is corrupting all IEEE 802.11 transmissions.

PW0-270 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Exam Set 5

When a client station operating under EDCA sends an RTS frame and NAV protection is desired for only the first or sole frame in the TXOP, the duration field will contain an amount of time, measured in microseconds, equal to which of the following?


Options are :

  • 1 CTS, 1 ACK, 1 DATA, 3 SIFS
  • 1 RTS, 1 CTS, 2 ACK , 1 DATA, 4 SIFS
  • 1 RTS, 1 ACK, 1 DATA, 2 SIFS, 1 DIFS
  • 1 RTS, 2 ACK, 1 DATA, 4 SIFS

Answer : 1 CTS, 1 ACK, 1 DATA, 3 SIFS

Given: The graphic is taken from a spectrum analyzer.What types of RF transmitters are illustrated?


Options are :

  • A Bluetooth headset and a narrowband RF jamming device
  • A 2.4 GHz cordless phone and an OpenAir FHSS system
  • An IEEE 802.11 HR/DSSS security camera on channel 6 and an RFID tag
  • A 20 MHz HT IEEE 802.11 system using channel 1 and a microwave oven

Answer : A 20 MHz HT IEEE 802.11 system using channel 1 and a microwave oven

What types of wireless systems are illustrated?


Options are :

  • A Bluetooth v2.0 file transfer and a 40 MHz HT AP on channels 11, 7 (primary, secondary)
  • An ERP IEEE 802.11 system using channel 6 and Bluetooth v1.2 discovery
  • An 802.11 HR/DSSS system using channel 2 and a digital FHSS phone
  • A 2.4 GHz cordless phone on channel 14 and a wireless RFID reader

Answer : An ERP IEEE 802.11 system using channel 6 and Bluetooth v1.2 discovery

PW0-071 Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Sales Exam Set 2

Which statement accurately describes IEEE 802.11 Power Save operation in a Basic Service Set that does not support the QoS facility?


Options are :

  • When the access point's buffer is full, the access point wakes all client stations using a PS-Poll frame so that they can receive the data.
  • After waking from a low power state, client stations listen for the next Beacon to determine if sending a PS-Poll frame to the access point is necessary.
  • After waking at a scheduled TBTT, client stations send Null Function frames to the access point with the Power Management bit set back to zero.
  • Upon receiving traffic for a dozing station, the access point wakes the client station using a PS-Poll frame so that the client station can receive the data.
  • Following a period of time in a low power state, client stations wake themselves and automatically poll the access point for traffic using a PS-Poll frame.

Answer : After waking from a low power state, client stations listen for the next Beacon to determine if sending a PS-Poll frame to the access point is necessary.

IEEE 802.11-2007 specifies two ERP protection mechanisms: RTS/CTS and CTS-to-Self. Which statement is true regarding these two protection mechanisms? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • RTS and CTS frames use Short Interframe Spaces (SIFS), and CTS-to-Self frames use PCF Interframe Spaces (PIFS).
  • A CTS-to-Self frame sent by a client station may reach fewer nodes than the RTS/CTS frame exchange.
  • RTS and CTS frames are relayed through the access point, whereas the CTS-to-Self frames are not.
  • Use of RTS/CTS requires more overhead than CTS-to-Self due to a higher number of frames transmitted onto the wireless medium.

Answer : A CTS-to-Self frame sent by a client station may reach fewer nodes than the RTS/CTS frame exchange. Use of RTS/CTS requires more overhead than CTS-to-Self due to a higher number of frames transmitted onto the wireless medium.

In an HT WLAN in which a delayed Block Ack policy is set up, what should result when an ACK frame is not received by the originator in response to a Basic BlockAckReq?


Options are :

  • The last frame within that block must be retransmitted by the originator.
  • All frames within that block must be retransmitted by the originator.
  • The BlockAckReq must be retransmitted by the originator.
  • Nothing. No ACK is expected in response to a Basic BlockAckReq.

Answer : The BlockAckReq must be retransmitted by the originator.

PW0-270 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Exam Set 6

Which statements are true regarding wireless network discovery and scanning processes for an HT network? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • Access points send Beacon frames only on the HT channel in the 2.4 GHz ISM band for which the access point is configured, and only after scanning that channel to discover existing BSSs. E. Client stations send Probe Request frames on all HT channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band in a consecutive manner until they receive at least 3 Probe Response frames.
  • Access points send Beacon frames on all HT channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band in a consecutive manner including the channel for which the access point is configured.
  • Client stations send Probe Request frames on all HT channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band in a consecutive manner until they associate with an access point. After associating to an access point, they no longer transmit Probe Request frames.
  • Client stations may continually send Probe Request frames on all HT channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band in a consecutive manner, regardless of their association state.

Answer : Access points send Beacon frames only on the HT channel in the 2.4 GHz ISM band for which the access point is configured, and only after scanning that channel to discover existing BSSs. E. Client stations send Probe Request frames on all HT channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band in a consecutive manner until they receive at least 3 Probe Response frames. Client stations may continually send Probe Request frames on all HT channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band in a consecutive manner, regardless of their association state.

In the analyzer trace shown, the TBTT is nominally 102.5 milliseconds. Why does the Beacon transmission interval vary?


Options are :

  • Beacon frames vary in size, and therefore some take slightly longer to send than others.
  • The DCF Interframe space (DIFS) is nominally 50 s, but typically varies by as much as 10 s, which causes delays in Beacons.
  • This trace shows an HT network where HR/DSSS nodes are active on the network. The access point is changing slot times from short to long as needed.
  • The access point must arbitrate to gain access to the RF medium in order to transmit a Beacon. B. The DCF Interframe space (DIFS) is nominally 50 s, but typically varies by as much as 10 s, which causes delays in Beacons.

Answer : The access point must arbitrate to gain access to the RF medium in order to transmit a Beacon. B. The DCF Interframe space (DIFS) is nominally 50 s, but typically varies by as much as 10 s, which causes delays in Beacons.

The 802.11r-2008 amendment to the 802.11 specification introduces what new Information Elements (IEs) to facilitate fast BSS transitions? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • FT IE (Fast Transition)
  • RSN IE (Robust Security Network)
  • HT IE (High Throughput)
  • MD IE (Mobility Domain)
  • FSR IE (Fast Secure Roaming)
  • DS IE (Distribution System)

Answer : FT IE (Fast Transition) MD IE (Mobility Domain)

CWNA-106 Certified Wireless Network Administrator Exam Set 3

What must occur before an HT STA operating in an EDCA BSS can transmit a data frame over the wireless medium? (Choose 3)


Options are :

  • Its CCA must report that the medium is idle.
  • The backoff timer for the AC must equal zero.
  • Its NAV must be equal to one
  • The appropriate interframe space must expire.
  • The STA must receive a BlockAck, resetting the NAV to zero

Answer : Its CCA must report that the medium is idle. The backoff timer for the AC must equal zero. The appropriate interframe space must expire.

What two IEEE 802.11 entities may be used to separate successful transmissions within an EDCA TXOP? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • RIFS
  • PIFS
  • AIFS
  • CAP
  • . ACK
  • SIFS

Answer : RIFS SIFS

Which statements regarding an IEEE 802.11 Channel Switch Announcement frame are true? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • Channel Switch Announcement frames are transmitted and retransmitted on a channel until all associated STAs successfully move to the new channel.
  • Channel Switch Announcement frames use the Action frame body format.
  • In an infrastructure BSS, Channel Switch Announcement frames may be transmitted by either the AP or an associated STA.
  • Channel Switch Announcement frames are the only place where the Channel Switch Announcement element is found.
  • Channel Switch Announcement elements may be carried in Beacon management frames.

Answer : Channel Switch Announcement frames use the Action frame body format. Channel Switch Announcement elements may be carried in Beacon management frames.

PW0-104 Wireless LAN Administration Certified Practice Exam Set 3

To effect Preauthentication, a STA's supplicant sends an IEEE 802.1X/EAPoL Start message. How is the EAPoL Start message addressed?


Options are :

  • DA = BSSID of targeted AP; RA = BSSID of the AP to which the STA is associated
  • DA = MAC of default gateway; RA = BSSID of the AP to which the STA is associated
  • DA = MAC of the default gateway; RA = Ethernet MAC of the targeted AP
  • DA = BSSID of the targeted AP; RA = Ethernet MAC of the targeted AP

Answer : DA = BSSID of targeted AP; RA = BSSID of the AP to which the STA is associated

Which statements are true regarding frame acknowledgement in an IEEE 802.11 WLAN? (Choose 3)


Options are :

  • . The RA field of ACK frames is always obtained from the Address 2 field in the corresponding frame being acknowledged.
  • A client stations Reassociation Request frames are only acknowledged with a Reassociation Response from the access point and not with an ACK frame.
  • In an EDCA BSS, encrypted Data frames are only acknowledged by client stations, never by access points.
  • Data frame fragments are acknowledged individually (with an ACK frame).
  • Probe request acknowledgement (sending of a Probe Response frame) is configurable in the access point and is always linked to SSID broadcast configuration in Beacons.
  • Following non-QoS Data frames with the More Fragments bit set to 1, the Duration/ID field of the ACK frame is set to a value equal to two SIFS plus the next Data fragment and its ACK.

Answer : . The RA field of ACK frames is always obtained from the Address 2 field in the corresponding frame being acknowledged. Data frame fragments are acknowledged individually (with an ACK frame). Following non-QoS Data frames with the More Fragments bit set to 1, the Duration/ID field of the ACK frame is set to a value equal to two SIFS plus the next Data fragment and its ACK.

An HT STA does not receive an ACK for a first-attempt data frame that it transmitted. Assuming this STA is not using BlockAcks in this case, what happens to the HT STA's EDCA contention window?


Options are :

  • The slot time within the contention window decreases by 50%.
  • It varies because the backoff algorithm is random.
  • The contention window is not affected by failed Data frame delivery.
  • The contention window is immediately closed, and the frame is retransmitted
  • The contention window approximately doubles in size.

Answer : The contention window approximately doubles in size.

PW0-104 Wireless LAN Administration Practice Exam Set 1

Which statements accurately describe IEEE 802.11 EDCA collision handling in a WMMcompliant infrastructure WLAN? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • After frames collide within a QoS STA and the lower priority AC subsequently gains a TXOP, the retry bit in the MAC header must be set to 1 to indicate a retry.
  • None
  • When frames collide within a QoS STA, data frames from lower priority ACs behave (as it relates to contention) as if there were an external collision on the wireless medium.
  • Collisions between contending EDCAFs within a QoS STA are resolved within the QoS STA C. When a frame transmission on the wireless medium fails, the transmitter may not transmit another frame from any AC or to any destination until the frame experiencing a failure is successfully transmitted or the max retry count for that frame is reached.

Answer : When frames collide within a QoS STA, data frames from lower priority ACs behave (as it relates to contention) as if there were an external collision on the wireless medium. Collisions between contending EDCAFs within a QoS STA are resolved within the QoS STA C. When a frame transmission on the wireless medium fails, the transmitter may not transmit another frame from any AC or to any destination until the frame experiencing a failure is successfully transmitted or the max retry count for that frame is reached.

The IEEE 802.11 Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) service is capable of performing what functions? (Choose 2)


Options are :

  • Testing channels for radar before using a channel and while operating in a channel
  • Establishing an interference baseline on all 2.4 GHz channels
  • Suspending operations on a channel with high IEEE 802.11 co-channel interference
  • Requesting and reporting of measurements in the current and other channels
  • Using modulation switching techniques to avoid interfering with radar systems

Answer : Testing channels for radar before using a channel and while operating in a channel Requesting and reporting of measurements in the current and other channels

How long, in microseconds, is the required Slot Time that is announced by an AP in an HT BSS when HR/DSSS, ERP-OFDM, and HT-OFDM client stations are associated to the AP?


Options are :

  • 2 s
  • 4 s
  • 9 s
  • 20 s
  • 10 s

Answer : 20 s

PW0-270 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) Exam Set 2

According to the 802.11n-2009 amendment, what security requirement is specified for HT BSSs?


Options are :

  • HT BSSs are prevented from supporting WEP.
  • All unicast traffic transmitted by an HT station and destined to an HT station must use AES-CCMP.
  • In an RSN, HT stations may not communicate with one another using TKIP.
  • TKIP cannot be supported in an HT BSS.
  • HT BSSs must mandatorily support 802.11r FT

Answer : In an RSN, HT stations may not communicate with one another using TKIP.

When an originator QoS STA initiates a BlockAck agreement with a recipient QoS STA, what is the first frame sent by the originator?


Options are :

  • BlockAckSetupReq
  • ActionBAReq
  • ADDBA Request
  • BlockAckPolicyReq
  • BlockAckReq

Answer : ADDBA Request

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