Python Special Characters

The characters which have some unique functionality, such type of characters are called as special characters.

Example:

  • \n - Newline
  • \t- Horizontal tab
  • \r- Carriage return
  • \b- Backspace
  • \f- Form feed
  • \'- Single Quote
  • \"- double quote
  • \\-Backslash
  • \v -vertical tab
  • \N - N is the number for Unicode character
  • \NNN - NNN is digits for Octal value
  • \xNN - NN is a hex value; \x is used to denote following is a hex value.
  • \a - bell sound, actually default chime
>>> print("chercher\ntech")
chercher
tech
>>> print("chercher\ttech")
chercher        tech
>>> print("This is\" symbol")
This is" symbol
>>> print('This is \' symbol')
This is ' symbol
>>> print("This is\\  symbol")
This is\  symbol
>>> print("Chercher\rTech")
Techcher
>>> print("CherCher\bTech")
CherCheTech
>>> print("CherCher\fTech")
CherCher♀Tech
>>> print("\110\151")
Hi
>>> print("\x48\x69")
Hi
>>>

special-characters

How to check if a string contains any special characters

Import the to match the string using regular expression.

The search function matches each character present inside the test_string string with the special characters present in the regular expression.

If there is a match it returns the character that matched otherwise it returns None. Based on the result, structure your logic.

import re
string_check= re.compile('[@_!#$%^&*()<>?/\|}{~:]')
test_string = "[email protected]"
 
if(string_check.search(test_string) == None):
    print("Contains NO Special Characters.") 
else: 
    print("Contains Special Characters.")
    print(string_check.search(test_string)) #print the special chars

Output

Contains Special Characters.
<re.Match object; span=(8, 9), match='@'>
You can check whether a string starts with a special character.
test_string = "[email protected]$tech"
print(test_string.startswith("$"))
#Output
True

Sometimes we might want to print the special characters to see what are special characters are present in the string. For example, printing special characters in normal way prints the Str\ting as Str ing because we have "\t" in the string.

To print the special characters as it is, we have to use repr() functions.

base_string = "Str\ting"
special_string = repr(base_string)
print("base string: "+ base_string)
print("special_string :"+special_string)

The output of printing special characters

base string: Str	ing
special_string :'Str\ting'

Python Abstract Method and Abstract Class

Python Comments

Python comments are those who start with the hash(#) character and extended to the end of the physical line, where the python virtual machine does not execute the line with the hash character, A comment may appear at the start of the line or following by the whitespace but never come in between the string.

For multiline comments, you can use the hash character at the beginning of every line.

# print("chercher.tech software solutions")
print("This is an example of comment in python")

python-comments

So if you observe, in the above image, the line with the hash character has not printed in the output as it is ignored by the python virtual machine.

Python Mutability

Python Constants

In Python, the constants are usually declared and assigned on a module, and a module means the new file containing a variable and functions which is imported to the main file.

Constants are written in uppercase and separated by the underscore, and this constant concept is not really implemented in python.

MAX-VALUE=10
MAX-VALUE=20

assigning-max-value

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