Download, Install and Configure Linux

What is Virtual Box?

The virtual box enables us to use multiple operating systems on the same computer.

The virtual box is an open-source and free hypervisor on X86 computers developed by Oracle Corporation. It is installed on Intel or AMD-based computers which can have any operating systems like Windows, Mac, Linux, and Solaris.

A virtual box increases the features of the existing computers so that multiple operating systems can run simultaneously on the same hardware. Thus we have the hardware on top of that the operating system has to be installed. Then we have to install the Virtual box.

Thus a virtual box is a program or software installed on our computer. Then we can have Linux or Windows or MAC on it. Thus we have more than operating systems on hardware.

Download and Install Oracle Virtual Box

  • Navigate to the link https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads.
  • Then move to the VirtualBox <version number> platform packages section. Here the list of operating system links on which the virtual box is to be installed is provided. For example, Windows hosts, OS X hosts, Linux distributions, and Solaris hosts.
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  • As per our actual operating system, we have to select the corresponding link. For example, on clicking on the Windows hosts link, we shall be asked to Save the corresponding .exe file in a location.
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  • Double click on the virtual box executable file that got saved. Then select the Run button.
  • Proceed with the steps one by one till the installation is complete.

Different ways to Install Linux

  • By inserting the CD and then start booting. Once the CD is inserted, the installation program begins.
  • By installing the ISO image or download the image from the website.
  • With the help of network boot. For this, we have to go to a particular IP in a particular folder. We have to provide the IP address and perform network booting.

Linux Installation (CentOS 7 Recommended)

We shall download CentOS version 7 of the Linux operating system.

  • Navigate to the link: http://mirror.centos.org/centos/7/isos/
  • Then click on the 64 or 32-bit link based on our system configuration.
  • Next, select any mirroring link that you want to have and proceed.
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  • The index of the CentOS shall be listed. Click on any of the available links and Save.
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  • Open the Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager and click on New. virtual-box6
  • The Create Virtual Machine window opens. We have to provide the name of the Virtual box. The Machine Folder field gets populated by default.
  • Next, the Type dropdown appears where we have to choose the type of operating system that we want to set up in the Virtual Box, for example, Linux. Then we shall have the Version field where the version of the Virtual Box is available as an option in the dropdown. Click on the Next button.

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  • We shall have to choose the Memory size. Click on the Next button. The ideal size to choose is 1024 MB.

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  • The Hard disk options shall be available for selection. Continue with the default value selected. Then click on the Create button.

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  • The Hard disk file type options shall be available for selection. Continue with the default value selected. Then click on the Next button.

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  • The Storage on physical hard disk options shall be available for selection. Continue with the default value selected. Then click on the Next button.

This is primarily done to determine if the virtual hard disk file should grow dynamically or it should be created at its maximum size.

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  • The File location and size fields shall be available for input. Enter the necessary values. Then click on the Create button.

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  • Congratulations!! Our Virtual Box has been created with the name MyFirstLinuxVM with all the necessary information.

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  • Click on the Start button from the top. Initially, it is an empty virtual machine with no operating system. We shall attach the CentOS ISO image to it which we have downloaded earlier in the initial steps. Click on the small folder appearing beside the dropdown with Empty value.

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  • Browse and select the CentOS ISO image file and click on Start.

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Please note the text Test this media & Install CentOS 7. This is recommended to select this option if we are doing the installation via a CD/ DVD to check if the CD/DVD being used is not damaged.
  • Select option the Install CentOS 7 and press Enter.
  • The installation process starts and after some time we shall be navigated to the welcome page of the CentOS 7 screen. Here we have to select the language during the installation process then click on the Continue button.

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  • The INSTALLATION SUMMARY page appears with the information on LOCALIZATION, SOFTWARE, and SYSTEM.

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  • Next, we shall move to the INSTALLATION DESTINATION section and specify the location where we want to download this operating system. Click on that and the INSTALLATION DESTINATION window appears. Here we shall proceed with the values selected by default for the Device Selection, Other Storage Options fields, and click on the Done button.

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  • Next is the KDUMP section. It is for generating logs when there is a crash. In order to have the logs, the KDUMP should be set to enabled.

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  • Next click on the NETWORK & HOST NAME, we have to enter the name of the Virtual box that we have created i.e MyFirstLinuxVM inside the Host name field then click on the Apply button. The Current host name field gets populated with the name we have provided for the Host name field.

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Please note - Linux is a case-sensitive operating system. We have entered the Host name as MyFirstLinuxVM. But it prefers to be in lower case and the Current host name field is populated in a lower case completely.
  • Also, information like Hardware Address, Speed, and Subnet Mask are displayed. The Ethernet still shows in Disconnected status. Click on the Configure button. Move to the General tab and select Automatically connect to this network when it is available. Click on Save and proceed.

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  • Now the Ethernet shows in Connected status. Click on Done.

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  • Click on the Begin Installation button.

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  • The package installation process starts. Under the USER SETTINGS, we have the ROOT PASSWORD and the USER CREATION options available.

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  • Click on the ROOT PASSWORD option and set a strong password for the root or admin user and confirm it. Click on the Done button.

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  • Next, click on the USER CREATION option and provide information on regular users. Click on the Done button.

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  • Once all the packages get installed, we shall get the completion message. Click on the Reboot button and accept the license agreement.

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  • Next, we need to take care of the licensing and select the LICENSE INFORMATION to accept the terms and conditions after going through them.

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  • Once done, we shall have the License accepted confirmation. Click on the FINISH CONFIGURATION button.

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  • Once the GUI configuration is complete we shall navigate to a screen with the time, speaker, network information, and the name with which we have created the account.

Click on the username. Provide the password and click on the Sign In button.

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  • The desktop of the virtual box shall open up with the Home and Trash folder by default.

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Please note - If we want to log in as root, then click on Not listed? link. Enter the Username as root. Then provide the password. virtual-box121
  • Right-click on the desktop and select the Open Terminal option to start working on the terminal.

Congratulations!! We have successfully installed CentOS 7.


Linux Installation (CentOS 8)

We shall now download CentOS version 8 of the Linux operating system.

  • Navigate to the link: https://www.centos.org/download/
  • Under the CentOS Linux section, click on the 64-bit link.
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  • Next, select any mirroring link that you want to have and proceed.
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  • Click on any of the available links and Save.
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  • Open the Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager and click on New.
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Please Note - If we are downloading the CentOS 8 version, we should have the Oracle Virtual Box with version 6 and above.
  • The Create Virtual Machine window opens. We have to provide the name of the Virtual box. The Machine Folder, Type, and version fields get populated by default.
  • Click on the Next button.
  • We shall have to choose the Memory size. Click on the Next button.
  • The Hard disk options shall be available for selection. Continue with the default value selected. Then click on the Create button.
  • The Hard disk file type options shall be available for selection. Continue with the default value selected. Then click on the Next button.
  • The Storage on physical hard disk options shall be available for selection. Continue with the default value selected. Then click on the Next button.
  • The File location and size fields shall be available for input. Enter the necessary values. Then click on the Create button.
  • Congratulations!! Our Virtual Box has been created with the name LinuxCentOS8 with all the necessary information.

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  • Click on the Start button from the top. Initially, it is an empty virtual machine with no operating system. We shall attach the CentOS ISO image to it which we have downloaded earlier in the initial steps. Click on the small folder appearing beside the dropdown with Empty value.
  • Browse and select the CentOS ISO image file and click on Start.
  • Select the option the Install CentOS 8 Linux 8.0.1905 and press Enter.

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Please note the text Test this media & Install CentOS Linux 8.0.1905. This is recommended to select this option if we are doing the installation via a CD/ DVD to check if the CD/DVD being used is not damaged.
  • The installation process starts and after some time we shall be navigated to the welcome page of the CentOS Linux 8 screen. Here we have to select the language during the installation process then click on the Continue button.

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  • The INSTALLATION SUMMARY page appears with the information on LOCALIZATION, SOFTWARE, and SYSTEM.
  • The SOFTWARE SELECTION section under the SOFTWARE by default shows Server with GUI. If we want to modify it, then click the SOFTWARE SELECTION field and select an option under Base Environment and also from Add-Ons for Selected Environment. Then click on the Done button.
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  • Next, we shall move to the INSTALLATION DESTINATION section and specify the location where we want to download this operating system. Click on that and the INSTALLATION DESTINATION window appears. Here we shall proceed with the values selected by default for the Device Selection and Storage Configuration sections. Then click on the Done button.

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  • Next is the KDUMP section. It is for generating logs when there is a crash. In order to have the logs, the KDUMP should be set to enabled.
  • Next click on the NETWORK & HOST NAME, we have to enter the name of the Virtual box that we have created that is LinuxCentOS8 inside the Host name field then click on the Apply button. The Current host name field gets populated with the name we have provided for the Host name field.
  • Also, information like Hardware Address and Speed are displayed. The Ethernet still shows in Disconnected status. Click on the Configure button. Move to the General tab and select Automatically connect to this network when it is available checkbox. Click on Save.
  • Now the Ethernet shows in Connected status. Click on Done.
  • Click on the Begin Installation button.
  • The package installation process starts. Under the USER SETTINGS, we have the ROOT PASSWORD and the USER CREATION options available.
  • Click on the ROOT PASSWORD option and set a strong password for the root or admin user and confirm it. Click on the Done button.
  • Next, click on the USER CREATION option and provide information on the regular user. Click on the Done button.
  • Once all the packages get installed, we shall get the completion message. Click on the Reboot button.
  • We are again navigated to the CentOS 8 Linux installation screen. To come out of that screen, first, click on the CTRL-key. Select the Devices option from the menu. Then move to the Optical Drives. Finally, choose the Remove disk from virtual driver option.
  • The For Unmount button should be clicked once it appears on the pop-up. Then we click on the Reset option from the Machine menu.
  • Next, we need to take care of the licensing and select the LICENSE INFORMATION to accept the terms and conditions after going through them.
  • Once done, we shall have the License accepted confirmation. Click on the FINISH CONFIGURATION button.
  • Once the GUI configuration is complete we shall navigate to a screen with the time, speaker, network information, and the name with which we have created the account.
  • Right-click on the desktop and select the Open Terminal option to start working on the terminal.

Congratulations!! We have successfully installed CentOS Linux 8.


Virtual Box Snapshots

The Snapshot helps to save the present state of Virtual machines. Sometimes we may commit some errors, in that state we do not have to reinstall from the beginning. Only restore the snapshot of the virtual machine.

  • Open the Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager and select a Virtual Box which is in Powered Off state.
  • Click on the Take button right on the top.
  • Take Snapshot of Virtual Machine pop up opens. Enter a Snapshot name and click on OK.

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  • Now if we want to restore the virtual box to the present state, select the Snapshot and click on the Restore button on the top.

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Linux Desktop GUI

During Linux installation, if we select a GUI, it shall be installed with the desktop called the GNOME or KDE.

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Home and Trash folders are provided by default in a Linux desktop GUI. Also, there are two menu options: Applications and Places.

Please note - File, Machine, View, Input, Devices, and Help menu options are for the Virtual Box and not for the Linux environment.

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The Applications menu contains the option Terminal which is used to run commands in the Linux environment. The right side of the Linux GUI desktop contains an option to modify the display settings.

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The settings contains the below options.

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The right lower section of the desktop contains the number of workspaces available currently. Currently we are in Workspace 1.

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Virtual Machine Management

Virtual Machine Management helps to control resources in a virtual machine. We can add, modify, and remove resources like memory, disk, CPU, and so on from the virtual machine. Click on the Settings link inside the Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager.

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Under the General section, We can change the name of the VirtualBox from the Basic Tab. Also, there are other tabs like Advanced, Description, and Encryption.

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Under the System section, there are the Motherboard, Processor, and Acceleration tabs available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the Display section, there is the Screen, Remote Display, and Video Capture tabs available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the Storage section, the storage details are available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the Audio section, the Audio details are available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the Network section, the Network Adapter details are available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the Serial Ports section, the Port details are available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the USB section, the external attached USB details are available to modify corresponding values.

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Under the Shared Folder section, the shared folder details are available to modify corresponding values.

Finally, under the User Interface section, the User Interface details are available to modify corresponding values.

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Install Virtualbox on Mac

I

nstall Oracle Virtual Box on Apple Mac

  • Navigate to the link https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads.
  • Click on the OS X hosts link.
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  • The executable file starts downloading.
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  • After the download is completed, the virtual box screen appears. Double-click on VirtualBox.pkg link.
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  • Click on Continue.
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  • Click on Continue.
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  • Click on Install.
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  • Enter username, password, and then click on Install Software.
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The installation process begins. linux-virtualboxmac7

  • After the installation completes, the success message is displayed. Click on Close.
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  • Click on the VirtualBox link on the desktop.
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  • Click on New in the Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager.
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  • Enter the name of the Oracle Virtual box.
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About Author :

Myself Debomita Bhattacharjee, an IT employee with 6+ years of experience in Software industry. My area of interest is Automation testing and Front End Development.

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