Table of content

System Access in Linux

Command Prompt and Getting Prompts Back

A command prompt is a small text at the beginning of the command line followed by the symbol of the prompt on a command-line interface. It is often called a prompt. Once we open the terminal from our Linux machine, we shall get the prompt.

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The first part of the entire command (saby) is the username. The second part of the entire command (ubuntu) is the hostname. The third part of the entire command ($) is the prompt symbol.

Please note - We shall get the # symbol as a command prompt if we are logged in as root user. For any user other than root, the $ symbol is used as a command prompt. This structure can be reconfigured or changed as well at the profile level.

If you're stuck at any point while running a command, we can get back to the command prompt with the Ctrl + c command.

Accessing Linux System

Every operating system has a unique protocol or client that connects to the system. To connect to the Linux system we can use the Putty terminal or SecureCRT terminal. We have to provide the IP address and Port. Once connected, it shall ask for the credentials.

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Please note - We can access Windows operating systems with Remote Desktop.

Download and Install Putty

We shall download Putty into our system.

  • Navigate to the link: https://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/latest.html.
  • The Package files are available for Windows and Unix. Windows users click on the 64 or 32-bit link based on the available system configuration.
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  • The file is to be saved to a location.
  • Once the download is completed, double click on the file and click on Run.
  • The Destination Folder pop up comes with the default location of the Putty folder. We can also change the location.

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  • Click on Next.
  • The Product Features pop up comes where we can select the features to be installed. Click on Install.

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  • Once the installation is completed, we shall get the message along with the option to view the README file. Click on Finish.

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Congratulations!! We have successfully installed Putty and a shortcut of Putty gets created.

Please note - The Mac users do not need to install Putty. We have to open up a terminal and execute the command ssh -l <username> <IP address of Linux machine>.

New Network Command

To know the IP address, we have to run the command ifconfig (This is for CentOS/Redhat 5 or 6). For the CentOS/Redhat 7, the command ifconfig gets replaced with ip. From the CentOS/Redhat 7.5 and above, the ifconfig command has been deprecated.

So if we are using Redhat or CentOS 7.5 version, we have run the command ip addr to get the list of all IPs. With Redhat or CentOS 7.5, if we want to use the ifconfig command we have to install a package called net-tools. The complete command is yum install net-tools.

Connect Linux VM via Putty

Let us execute the command ip addr command from the command prompt. The IP address gets listed out. Now launch the Putty by double-clicking on it.

Enter the IP address we just obtained by running the ip addr command. The Port field gets populated by default. Enter the machine name in the Saved Sessions field. Click on Save. Then click on Open.

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The Putty Security Alert pop up comes up. Click on Yes.

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The Putty terminal screen opens up where we have to input our credentials. This is now similar to the GUI login which we have done earlier. If the GUI environment is not set up, we have to depend on Putty to work with Linux.

Important points to remember in Linux:

  • Linux is case sensitive.
  • Linux file names should not have spaces.
  • Linux has an administrator account known as root.
  • The root account has many features like creation, modification, deletion of accounts. It can also change the configuration files.
About Author :

Myself Debomita Bhattacharjee, an IT employee with 6+ years of experience in Software industry. My area of interest is Automation testing and Front End Development.

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