ISTQB Practice Questions

Code Coverage is used as a measure of what ?

  • a. Defects
  • b. Trends analysis
  • c. Test Effectiveness
  • d. Time Spent Testing
Which of the following comparisons of component testing and system testing are TRUE?


Options are :

  • Component testing verifies the functioning of software modules, program objects, and classes that are separately testable, whereas system testing verifies interfaces between components and interactions with different parts of the system.
  • Test cases for component testing are usually derived from component specifications, design specifications, or data models, whereas test cases for system testing are usually derived from requirement specifications, functional specifications or use cases.
  • Component testing focuses on functional characteristics, whereas system testing focuses on functional and non-functional characteristics.
  • Component testing is the responsibility of the technical testers, whereas system testing typically is the responsibility of the users of the system.

Answer : Test cases for component testing are usually derived from component specifications, design specifications, or data models, whereas test cases for system testing are usually derived from requirement specifications, functional specifications or use cases.

Explanation Test cases for component testing are usually derived from component specifications, design specifications, or data models, whereas test cases for system testing are usually derived from requirement specifications, functional specifications or use cases.

Which statement below BEST describes non-functional testing?

Options are :

  • The process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements.
  • The process of testing to determine the compliance of a system to coding standards.
  • Testing without reference to the internal structure of a system.
  • Testing system attributes, such as usability, reliability or maintainability.

Answer : Testing system attributes, such as usability, reliability or maintainability.

Explanation Non-functional testing is testing how the system performs its functionality. Non-functional testing is testing system attributes, such as usability, reliability or maintainability.

An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004. The boundary values for testing this field are

  • a. 0,1900,2004,2005
  • b. 1900, 2004
  • c. 1899,1900,2004,2005
  • d. 1899, 1900, 1901,2003,2004,2005
Which of the following BEST describes the difference between an inspection and a walkthrough?

Options are :

  • Both inspections and walkthroughs are led by the author.
  • An inspection is led by a moderator and a walkthrough is led by the author.
  • Both inspections and walkthroughs are led by a trained moderator.
  • A walkthrough is led by the author. The author is not present during inspections.

Answer : An inspection is led by a moderator and a walkthrough is led by the author.

Explanation An inspection is led by a moderator and a walkthrough is led by the author.

Which of the following is a purpose of the review planning phase?

Options are :

  • Log defects.
  • Explain the documents to the participants.
  • Gather metrics.
  • Allocate the individual roles.

Answer : Allocate the individual roles.

Explanation Log defects is done during the "Review meeting", Explain the documents to the participants is done during the "Kick-off", Gather metrics is done during the "Follow-up" and Allocate the individual roles is done during the "Panning" phase of the review process.

Which one of the following are non-functional testing methods?

  • a. System testing
  • b. Usability testing
  • c. Performance testing
  • d. Both b & c
Which of the following options is not related to static testing?


Options are :

  • Test data preparation tools
  • Early defect detection
  • Scribe
  • Compilers

Answer : Test data preparation tools

Explanation (A) Test data preparation tools is related to preparing data for dynamic testing (B) Early defect detection is related to early testing which is achieved by static testing (C) Scribe is a role in conducting reviews which is a static testing technique (D) Compilers is sort of static analysis tools which is a static testing technique

Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression

    test?
  • a. Data tester
  • b. Boundary tester
  • c. Capture/Playback
  • d. Output comparator.
Income tax is set at a flat rate of 20% per year for all incomes but with 2 exceptions. tax exemption is given for incomes below 5000$ per year. Also, families with single worker and more than five members  get 5% tax reduction. What is the number of test cases generated using decision table testing when having one test case per rule?

Options are :

  • 4
  • 8
  • 6
  • 3

Answer : 8

Explanation to generate the table, we need to know the conditions that would affect our decisions. Conditions are: (1) income below 5000 (2) single worker (3) more than five members. To simplify things, all the combination that we could have here = 2 ^ 3. 2 represents (true and false) and 3 represents the number of conditions. so the answer is straight forward 2 ^ 3 = 8.

Which of the below would be best basis for fault attack testing?

Options are :

  • Experience, defect and failure data, knowledge about software failures.
  • Risk analysis performed at the beginning of the project.
  • Use cases derived from the business flows by domain experts
  • Expected results from comparison with an existing system.

Answer : Experience, defect and failure data, knowledge about software failures.

Explanation A structured way of error guessing is called “fault attack� where the tester enumerate through a list of possible defects and design tests that attack these defects. The list can be built over time based on tester experience. So the answer is Experience, defect and failure data, knowledge about software failures are the best basis for fault attack testing

Incorrect form of Logic coverage is:

  • a. Statement Coverage
  • b. Pole Coverage
  • c. Condition Coverage
  • d. Path Coverage
Which of the following would be the best test approach when there are poor specification or time pressures?

Options are :

  • Use case testing
  • White box testing
  • Exploratory testing
  • specification based testing

Answer : Exploratory testing

Explanation Exploratory testing is the best test approach when there are poor specification or time pressures

A defect was found during testing. When the network got disconnected while receiving data from a server, the system crashed. The defect was fixed by correcting the code that checked the network availability during data transfer. The existing test cases covered 100% of all statements of the corresponding module. To verify the fix and ensure more extensive coverage, some new

tests were designed and added to the test suite.

What types of testing are mentioned above?

i. Functional testing.

ii. Structural testing.

iii. Re-testing.

iv. Performance testing.

Options are :

  • i, ii and iv
  • i and iii
  • i, ii and iii
  • i, iii and iv

Answer : i, ii and iii

Explanation A defect was found during testing. (Functional Testing) The existing test cases covered 100% of all statements of the corresponding module. (Structural testing) To verify the fix (re-testing)

Which of the following is not a quality characteristic listed in ISO 9126 Standard?

  • a. Functionality
  • b. Usability
  • c. Supportability
  • d. Maintainability
Which of the following statements about the benefits of deriving test cases from use cases are true?

I. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for system and acceptance testing.
II. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful only for automated testing
III. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for unit testing.
IV. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for testing the interaction and interference between different components.

Options are :

  • I
  • I and II
  • III
  • I and IV

Answer : I and IV

Explanation Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for system and acceptance testing and for testing the interaction and interference between different components.

Independent Verification & Validation is

  • a. Done by the Developer
  • b. Done by the Test Engineers
  • c. Done By Management
  • d. Done by an Entity Outside the Project’s sphere of influence
Statement coverage will not check for 

Options are :

  • Missing statements
  • unused branches
  • Dead code
  • Unused statement

Answer : Missing statements

Explanation White box testing like statement coverage doesn't know anything about the required functionality. White box testing doesn't use the specification to know what needed to be done so it can not check for missing logic or missing statements.

To test a function, the programmer has to write a _________, which calls the function to be tested and passes it test data.

  • a. Stub
  • b. Driver
  • c. Proxy
  • d. None of the above
How many test cases are needed to achieve 100 % statement coverage?

if ((temperature < 0) or (temperature > 100)) {

	alert ("DANGER");
	if ((speed > 100) and (load <= 50))}
		speed = 50;
   }         
}

else {
    check = false;
}									


Options are :

  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2

Answer : 2

Explanation We only need 2 test cases: (1) temperature = 110, speed = 180, load = 30 (this will execute "alert ("DANGER");" and "speed = 50;" statements. (2) temperature = 10, (this will execute "check = false;" statement)

The Switch is switched off once the temperature falls below 18 and then it is turned on when the temperature is more than 21.  Identify the Equivalence values which belong to the same class.

Options are :

  • 12,16,22
  • 24,27,17
  • 22,23,24
  • 14,15,19

Answer : 22,23,24

Explanation the partitions are: (1) below 18 (2) 18-21 (3) more than 21. So "22,23,24" falls under the SAME third partition/class.

Boundary value testing

  • a. Is the same as equivalence partitioning tests
  • b. Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes
  • c. Tests combinations of input circumstances
  • d. Is used in white box testing strategy
The specification which describes steps required to operate the system and exercise test cases in order to implement the associated test design

Options are :

  • Test Case Specification
  • Test Design Specification
  • Test Procedure Specification
  • Test Plan

Answer : Test Procedure Specification

Explanation Test conditions are stored in the Test Design Specification document. Test cases are stored in the Test case Specification document. Test procedures are stored in the Test procedure Specification document.

For the following code

Read A 
Read B 
IF A > 0 THEN
  IF B  = 0 THEN
	 Print “No values�
   ELSE {
	 Print B
	 IF A > 21 THEN
		Print A
	 ENDIF
  ENDIF
ENDIF								
How many test cases are needed to achieve 100% decision coverage

Options are :

  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5

Answer : 4

Explanation We need to exercise each true and false of the 3 IF statements: test case (1) A = -1 -> 1st IF FALSE. test case (2) A = 10, B = 0 -> 1st IF TRUE , 2nd IF TRUE. test case (3) A = 21, B = 10 -> 1st IF TRUE , 2nd IF FALSE, 3rd IF TRUE. test case (4) A = 20, B = 20 -> 1st IF TRUE , 2nd IF FALSE, 3rd IF FALSE.

A program validates a numeric field as follows:

Values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected. Which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?

Options are :

  • 9,10,11,22
  • 9,10,21,22
  • 10,11,21,22
  • 10,11,20,21

Answer : 9,10,21,22

Explanation Boundaries of the partitions are: 9 - 10, 21 - 22. 11 is not a boundary

Statement Coverage will not check for the following.

  • a. Missing Statements
  • b. Unused Branches
  • c. Dead Code
  • d. Unused Statement
Which of the following BEST describes the task partition between test manager and tester?

Options are :

  • The test manager plans, organizes and creates the test specifications, while the tester implements, prioritizes and executes tests.
  • The test manager plans, monitors and controls the testing activities, while the tester designs, executes tests and evaluates the results.
  • The test manager plans testing activities and chooses the standards to be followed, while the tester chooses the tools and controls their use.
  • The test manager reviews tests developed by others, while the tester selects tools to support testing.

Answer : The test manager plans, monitors and controls the testing activities, while the tester designs, executes tests and evaluates the results.

Explanation The test manager plans, monitors and controls the testing activities, while the tester designs, executes tests and evaluates the results.

Pick the best definition of quality

  • a. Quality is job one
  • b. Zero defects
  • c. Conformance to requirements
  • d. Work as designed
Stochastic testing using statistical information or operational profiles uses the following method


Options are :

  • Heuristic testing approach
  • Methodical testing approach
  • Model based testing approach
  • Process or standard compliant testing approach

Answer : Model based testing approach

Explanation Stochastic testing using statistical information or operational profiles uses the Model based testing approach which is a test strategy approach

A common test technique during component test is

  • a. Statement and branch testing
  • b. Usability testing
  • c. Security testing
  • d. Performance testing
You are working as a tester on a project to develop a point-of-sales system for grocery stores and other similar retail outlets. Which of the following is a product risk for such a project?

Options are :

  • The arrival of a more-reliable competing product on the market.
  • Delivery of an incomplete test release to the first cycle of system test.
  • An excessively high number of defect fixes fail during re-testing.
  • Failure to accept allowed credit cards.

Answer : Failure to accept allowed credit cards.

Explanation Failure to accept allowed credit cards is a product risk. The rest are project risks

Fault Masking is

  • a. Error condition hiding another error condition
  • b. Creating a test case which does not reveal a fault
  • c. Masking a fault by developer
  • d. Masking a fault by a tester
Which one of the following BEST describes the purpose of a priority rating in an incident report?

Options are :

  • To show how quickly the problem should be fixed
  • To show the highest cost to fix the defect
  • To show which first parts of the system are affected by the incident
  • To show who should fix it first

Answer : To show how quickly the problem should be fixed

Explanation The priority rating (also called urgency rating) in an incident report is used to show how quickly the problem should be fixed

What is the purpose of configuration management in testing?

a. To choose and implement a suitable configuration management tool.
b. To identify unique items of testware and their related developed software.
c. To provide traceability between items of testware and developed software.
d. To enable users to configure the software.
e. To control the versions of software released into the test environment.

Options are :

  • a, c and e
  • a, b and d
  • b, c and d
  • b, c and e

Answer : b, c and e

Explanation b, c and e

One Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work is :

  • a. Lack of technical documentation
  • b. Lack of test tools on the market for developers
  • c. Lack of training
  • d. Lack of Objectivity
Which of the following describe test control actions that may occur during testing?

I. Setting an entry criterion that developers must retest fixes before fixes are accepted into a build.
II. Changing the test schedule due to availability of a test environment.
III. Re-prioritizing tests when development delivers software late

Options are :

  • Only I
  • Only II
  • I, II and III
  • I and III

Answer : I, II and III

Explanation All option are valid test control actions

Which of the following activities would NORMALLY be undertaken during test planning?


a. Scheduling test analysis and design.
b. Designing Test Conditions.
c. Monitoring test progress.
d. Identifying the objectives of testing.
e. Evaluating test tools.
f. Selecting test metrics for monitoring and control.

Options are :

  • b, c and d
  • a, d and f
  • a, d and e
  • b, c and f

Answer : a, d and f

Explanation a, d and f are test planning activities. Designing Test Conditions is done during test analysis and design. Evaluating test tools is done at any times when needed.

During the software development process, at what point can the test process start?

  • a. When the code is complete.
  • b. When the design is complete.
  • c. When the software requirements have been approved.
  • d. When the first code module is ready for unit testing
A project that is in the implementation phase is six weeks behind schedule.

The delivery date for the product is four months away. The project is not allowed to slip the delivery date or compromise on the quality standards established for his product. Which of the following actions would bring this project back on schedule?

Options are :

  • Eliminate some of the requirements that have not yet been implemented.
  • Add more engineers to the project to make up for lost work.
  • Ask the current developers to work overtime until the lost work is recovered.
  • Hire more software quality assurance personnel.

Answer : Eliminate some of the requirements that have not yet been implemented.

Explanation This is more of a project management question. adding more resources will complicate the project more as we need to train the new hires and the cmmunication between the project team will be more complicated. so it is usually not recommended and it might actually result in delaying the project more. Overtime is a NO NO in project management, never recommended. QAs will not help in speeding up the project. So the only acceptable answer is to try to talk to the customer and eliminate some of the requirements that have not yet been implemented.

Which one is not characteristic of test management tool?

Options are :

  • Support for the management of tests and the testing activities carried out
  • Interfaces to test execution tools
  • Quantitative analysis related to test
  • Check for consistency and undefined requirements

Answer : Check for consistency and undefined requirements

Explanation Check for consistency and undefined requirements is a characteristic of Requirements management tools and not of test management tools

In a review meeting a moderator is a person who

  • a. Takes minutes of the meeting
  • b. Mediates between people
  • c. Takes telephone calls
  • d. Writes the documents to be reviewed
Which of the following statements best captures the difference between data-driven and keyword driven test automation?

Options are :

  • Keyword-driven test automation extends data-driven automation by defining keywords corresponding to business processes.
  • Data-driven test automation extends keyword-driven automation by defining data corresponding to business processes.
  • Data-driven test automation is more maintainable than keyword-driven test automation
  • Keyword-driven test automation is easier to develop than data-driven test automation.

Answer : Keyword-driven test automation extends data-driven automation by defining keywords corresponding to business processes.

Explanation Keyword-driven test automation extends data-driven automation by defining keywords corresponding to business processes.

Which of the following is NOT a goal of a Pilot Project for tool evaluation?

Options are :

  • To evaluate how the tool fits with existing processes and practices.
  • To determine use, management, storage, and maintenance of the tool and test assets.
  • To assess whether the benefits will be achieved at reasonable cost.
  • To reduce the defect rate in the Pilot Project.

Answer : To reduce the defect rate in the Pilot Project.

Explanation The defect rate has nothing to do with trying a new tool in a pilot project

Acceptance test cases are based on what?

  • a. Requirements
  • b. Design
  • c. Code
  • d. Decision table
Which test activities are supported by test harness or unit test framework tools?

Options are :

  • Test management and control.
  • Test specification and design.
  • Test execution and logging.
  • Performance and monitoring.

Answer : Test execution and logging.

Explanation Test harness or unit test framework tools are used during Test execution and logging.

“How much testing is enough?”

  • a. This question is impossible to answer
  • b. This question is easy to answer
  • c. The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements
  • d. This answer depends on the maturity of your developers


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