CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Design Professional Exam Set 4

What commonly causes a client-to-AP link imbalance? 


Options are :

  • The AP’s antenna gain is lower than the client’s antenna gain
  • The AP’s transmit power is significantly lower than the client’s transmit power
  • The client’s transmit power is significantly lower than the AP’s transmit power
  • The client’s antenna gain is lower than the AP’s antenna gain

Answer : The client’s transmit power is significantly lower than the AP’s transmit power

Given: In a site survey deliverable report, you are expected to explain the spectrum measurements taken at the customer’s site. What portion of a spectrum analyzer view can be used to determine if a given channel is too active for use as the active channel for a new AP? 


Options are :

  • Duty cycle
  • Device list
  • Real time FFT
  • Frame decode

Answer : Duty cycle

When preparing a floor plan graphic for use in predictive and manual site surveying, what calibration method will lead to the most accurate and reliable RF data? 


Options are :

  • Measure the width of an actual office doorway with a tape measure and use this value to calibrate against a doorway graphic.
  • Calibrate the ceiling height of the floor plan first, then the survey software should be able to autocalibrate the X and Y planes of the graphic.
  • Use the longest available measurement (like a straight exterior wall) to calibrate the graphic’s scale
  • Use the known size of a small object, such as a ceiling tile, and use a single instance of this object (e.g. a single ceiling tile) to scale the floor plan.

Answer : Use the longest available measurement (like a straight exterior wall) to calibrate the graphic’s scale

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Design Professional Exam Set 5

You are site surveying a network for VoWiFi. You have positioned an AP for a manual survey and are moving away from the AP with a phone in Survey Mode in your hand and you are reading the RSSI value of the signal received from the AP. You have previously determined that the noise floor was approximately -94 dBm on this floor of the building. The phone’s documentation does not specify a recommended RSSI or SNR value for best performance.

Based on the information provided and the type of device (VoWiFi phone) you are deploying, what minimum RSSI should you plan for in all areas you are monitoring and where VoWiFi service is desired?   


Options are :

  • – 72 dBm
  • – 62 dBm
  • – 67 dBm
  • – 75 dBm

Answer : – 67 dBm

At a university, the WLAN has been successfully deployed for ubiquitous access for faculty, students, and guests. Many student computer labs are available throughout the campus with wired network connectivity, but there are also a few smaller lab areas and workstations where Ethernet cabling is not available. For student wireless use, the students must authenticate against RADIUS/Active Directory using PEAP. Also, the network administrators at this university would like administrative access to these workstations when they are not in use by students so that the administrators can manage group policies, update OS patches, and perform other routine software maintenance.

What deployment option is available and recommended for both student use and remote administration of these workstations? 


Options are :

  • These workstations should be Ethernet-connected to a wireless client bridge, which will maintain network connectivity independent of student connectivity status.
  • Roaming user profiles should be used so that the users do not loser the family pictures on their desktops.
  • The WLAN infrastructure vendor is responsible for providing proprietary client connectivity options to facilitate device connectivity without user interaction.
  • Due to the architecture of 802.1X port-based access control, it is not possible for a wireless-only computer to access network services required by network administrators in this scenario.

Answer : These workstations should be Ethernet-connected to a wireless client bridge, which will maintain network connectivity independent of student connectivity status.

You are on site, planning a network at a freight shipping company on a busy harbor. Since the preliminary WLAN design specifies support for the 5 GHz spectrum, you would like to test for radar pulses to determine if DFS channels should be supported at this facility. As a part of your spectral survey with a laptop-based analyzer, you include DFS testing to identify the presence of radar. This is done by manually observing Real-time FFT, Duty Cycle, and Active Devices charts of the spectrum analyzer software.

What potential drawback is present with this DFS test method? 


Options are :

  • Many WLAN products that support DFS channels report several false positives. Ideally, the actual WLAN equipment used in the deployment should be used to test for DFS.
  • Some sources of 5 GHz radar, such as military ships, are mobile in nature. A longer, automated test setup should be used to identify the presence or absence of radar.
  • Modern spectrum analyzer adapters do not provide the necessary bandwidth resolution required to detect and measure radar signatures.
  • Manual identification of radar pulses using spectrum analysis charts can be very difficult due to radar’s low amplitude at the Wi-Fi receiver.

Answer : Manual identification of radar pulses using spectrum analysis charts can be very difficult due to radar’s low amplitude at the Wi-Fi receiver.

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Professional Practice Exam Set 1

What are some advantages of designing guest access with all guest users tunneled directly into the DMZ? 


Options are :

  • Minimizes configuration requirements for segmentation and filtering of guest traffic across internal LAN
  • Allows a single SSID with different authentication/encryption models to be used for all WLAN services for corporate users and guests
  • Enhances performance of web proxy servers in the DMZ for guest Internet traffic
  • The border firewall configuration will not require any additional rules to pass guest traffic to the DMZ controller

Answer : Minimizes configuration requirements for segmentation and filtering of guest traffic across internal LAN

What statement is true of a WLAN design that supports Real-Time Location Services (RTLS) with 802.11 RFID asset tags? 


Options are :

  • Active RFID tags periodically transmit 802.11 beacon management frames that must be synchronized with the AP for proper location of the tagged asset.
  • When passive tags are implemented, the AP density should be increased by 25% to make up for the shorter transmit range of passive tags as compared to active tags.
  • With passive tags, AP transmit gain should be increased to supply extra power for near-field coupling or backscatter modulation from the tag to the AP since the passive tag lacks an internal power source.
  • Passive tags do not communicate directly with the WLAN infrastructure, but instead they rely on the tag reader to communicate tag information to the infrastructure’s location tracking server/database.

Answer : Passive tags do not communicate directly with the WLAN infrastructure, but instead they rely on the tag reader to communicate tag information to the infrastructure’s location tracking server/database.

What action should be taken after implementing a WLAN based on the design developed from the site survey process? 


Options are :

  • Design the infrastructure services
  • Requirements analysis
  • Post-installation survey
  • Gathering facility documentation

Answer : Post-installation survey

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Professional Practice Exam Set 2

A wireless engineer from your company performed a site survey in an office building where a wireless network extension was needed. He reports that while performing a Layer 1 sweep near a meeting room full of people, he detected RF activity with a very low duty cycle. He is unsure how to interpret what he recorded to determine its impact on a future Wi-Fi network.

What is true about this RF environment and its potential impact on the WLAN?   


Options are :

  • The signal is alternating between peaks (high interference level) and valleys (low interference level). The network channel design must be built to avoid the affected peak frequencies
  • The signal is typical of a high radio card background noise. It shows that the card used for the Layer 1 sweep should be replaced and the Layer 1 sweep re-done.
  • The signal has a low duty cycle and should not be of major impact on the wireless network.
  • The signal affects the entire spectrum and will render the wireless network unusable. It must be located and removed.

Answer : The signal has a low duty cycle and should not be of major impact on the wireless network.

What kind of antenna results in a nearly circular pattern on the azimuth chart but a very flat donut shape on the elevation chart?   


Options are :

  • 60 degree horizontal patch
  • High gain omni-directional
  • 120 degree horizontal sector
  • 20 degree vertical yagi

Answer : High gain omni-directional

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Professional Practice Exam Set 3

An associated STA detects a new BSS with the same SSID as the STA's current BSS. The new BSS uses a different IP subnet than the current BSS. If the STA is configured to use 802.1X/EAP preauthentication, what is likely to occur? 


Options are :

  • The STA will not attempt to preauthenticate because the new BSS uses a different IP subnet.
  • The STA will attempt to preauthenticate, but fail because the new BSS uses a different data-link broadcast domain.
  • The STA will attempt to preauthenticate and succeed if IP Mobility is enabled on the AP or WLAN controller.
  • The STA will attempt to preauthenticate and succeed if DHCP is supported on the new subnet.

Answer : The STA will attempt to preauthenticate, but fail because the new BSS uses a different data-link broadcast domain.

You are creating an outdoor bridge link that spans more than 1000 yards. Which one of the following antenna types is more likely to be included in the design? 


Options are :

  • Yagi
  • Omni
  • Patch
  • Panel

Answer : Yagi

Why does a frame transmitted at 1 Mbps have a greater usable range than the same frame transmitted at 54 Mbps? 


Options are :

  • To improve reliability, 802.11 STAs increase transmit power as the signaling rate decreases.
  • Free space path loss causes greater signal dispersion for higher rate transmissions
  • Lower data rate RF transmissions travel at higher speeds and are less likely to experience collisions.
  • Receiver sensitivity requirements are lower for frames transmitted with less complex modulation and coding.

Answer : Receiver sensitivity requirements are lower for frames transmitted with less complex modulation and coding.

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Professional Practice Exam Set 4

You told your customer that multipath fading may be mitigated simply by moving one or both of the receiver’s antennas a small amount, usually by one to four wavelengths away from its original position. Your customer is prepared to make the change, but does not know the wavelength for 802.11ac.

What is the approximate wavelength of an 802.11ac radio wave? 


Options are :

  • 15.24 cm (6 inches)
  • 45 cm (17.71 inches)
  • 5.5 cm (2.16 inches)
  • 12 cm (4.72 inches)

Answer : 5.5 cm (2.16 inches)

Given:

In your regulatory domain, a Tx Power Level of “1” is equivalent to 17 dBm.

For every integer increment (e.g. from 1 to 2) to the Tx Power Level, the AP’s transmit power is halved. 

In units of mW, what is the actual transmit power for an AP configured at a Tx Power Level of “4”? 


Options are :

  • 50 mW
  • 8 mW
  • 6.25 mW
  • 12.5 mW

Answer : 6.25 mW

What is the purpose of DHCP Option 43, and how is it used with WLANs? 


Options are :

  • It provides clients with a temporary IP address on a restricted VLAN until 802.1X authentication is completed. Then the client receives its long-term IP address.
  • It integrates a DHCP server with AAA servers and user databases to dynamically assign IP addresses to client devices. During 802.1X, the AAA server uses Option 43 to notify the DHCP server what IP pool the client’s address should be drawn from.
  • It provides IP address bindings for specific network nodes that require long-term IP address assignments. WLAN controllers are configured to use Option 43 to receive long-term IP address leases that are centrally managed with DHCP.
  • It supports vendor-specific IP address attributes for node discovery purposes. APs use Option 43 with vendor class identifiers to obtain the IP address of a centralized WLAN controller.

Answer : It supports vendor-specific IP address attributes for node discovery purposes. APs use Option 43 with vendor class identifiers to obtain the IP address of a centralized WLAN controller.

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Professional Practice Exam Set 5

Given: For this fill-in the blank question, each answer option contains an answer for the first and second blanks, separated by a dash “—”. Choose the answer option that correctly fills in both blanks in the following sentence.

A WLAN may use 802.11 admission control to ________, and admission control requirements are configured separately for each ________ 


Options are :

  • Mark ingress and egress frames with priority values — TCP/IP port
  • Identify voice-enabled wireless devices — AP radio (that is, 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz)
  • Regulate the available bandwidth resources — Access Category
  • Block stations with inadequate security parameters — SSID

Answer : Regulate the available bandwidth resources — Access Category

ABC Company has a WLAN controller with 10 controller-based APs; the Voice SSID is configured for centralized data forwarding. Each AP is connected to an access port on a layer-2 Ethernet switch. Each layer-2 switch is uplinked to a single layer-3 core Ethernet switch. The WLAN controller is connected directly to the layer-3 core Ethernet switch. Layer-3 tunnels are created between all controller-based APs and the WLAN controller. A voice server is connected to the layer-3 Ethernet switch.

When a voice-enabled QoS STA sends an IP data packet to a voice server in this scenario, the DSCP value carried in the STA's IP data packet gets mapped to what and by which device? 


Options are :

  • The DSCP value is mapped to the DSCP value in the encapsulating IP header by the layer-3 switch.
  • The DSCP value is mapped to an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag by the access point.
  • The DSCP value is mapped to an IEEE 802.1p (802.1D-2004) UP value by the access point.
  • The DSCP value is mapped to an IEEE 802.1Q priority tag value by the WLAN controller.

Answer : The DSCP value is mapped to an IEEE 802.1Q priority tag value by the WLAN controller.

What basic RF math formula should be used as a baseline to convert an RF value in units of dBm into a value of mW? *Note: “dBm” in the formulas represents the known dBm value 


Options are :

  • mW
  • =log20dBm2
  • 0 dBm = 1 mW
  • log10dBm

Answer : 0 dBm = 1 mW

In a multiple channel architecture (MCA) network supporting 802.1X authentication, what aspect of WLAN design affects client roaming efficiency and effectiveness? 


Options are :

  • PHY standard used by the AP
  • PHY standard used by client
  • Key caching protocols
  • Cipher suite

Answer : Key caching protocols

What is the purpose of Friis transmission equation [ (LdB) = 20 log(d) + 20 log (f) - 27.55 ]? 


Options are :

  • Calculate receive sensitivity for an 802.11 radio/antenna pair
  • Calculate the loss experienced between the intentional radiator and antenna
  • Calculate earth bulge to determine minimum antenna height
  • Calculate RF path loss in free space

Answer : Calculate RF path loss in free space

In a large enterprise (5000+ wireless users), by what would NOT be a recommended method by which IP addresses and VLANs are assigned to different clients associated to the same AP? 


Options are :

  • Upstream AAA servers dynamically assign VLANs to each user or group profile
  • Each SSID is mapped to a static VLAN assignment
  • Multiple VLAN pools are designated for an SSID and user IP addresses are selected in a roundrobin fashion from the associated pools
  • Radio signal metrics (RSSI, SNR, etc.) of WLAN clients are triangulated for location-based VLAN assignment during association

Answer : Radio signal metrics (RSSI, SNR, etc.) of WLAN clients are triangulated for location-based VLAN assignment during association

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Design Professional Exam Set 1

What is a radome? 


Options are :

  • None
  • A weatherproof piece of plastic covering an antenna or antenna system.
  • The unit used to measure the signal reflected backward by the end of a cable.
  • A type of semi-circular ceiling found in atriums and that is a heavy cause of RF reflection.
  • A piece of metal positioned behind APs mounted on outdoor poles, designed to limit the butterfly effect.

Answer : A weatherproof piece of plastic covering an antenna or antenna system.

You deployed an AP and installed its antenna, and you now need to set the AP transmit power. Given a desired EIRP of 21 dBm, and an antenna gain of 5.85 dBd connected through 25 feet of cable with a loss specification of 4 dB/100 feet.

Assuming that there is no significant loss from the connectors, what should be the transmit power level for this AP? 


Options are :

  • 25 mW
  • 10 mW
  • 20 mW
  • 14 mW

Answer : 25 mW

What is a valid 40 MHz channel configuration in the 2.4 GHz ISM band where channels 1-11 are permitted? 


Options are :

  • 4 (primary), +1 (secondary)
  • 1 (primary), 6 (secondary)
  • 8 (primary), +1 (secondary)
  • 2 (primary), -1 (secondary)

Answer : 4 (primary), +1 (secondary)

CWDP-302 Certified Wireless Design Professional Exam Set 2

Given: You are evaluating the theoretical and real-world RF gain benefits of transmit and receive features introduced by 802.11 with MIMO. This exercise allows you to quantify the feature’s value  in a real-world environment.

What is the maximum theoretical signal gain of chip-based TxBF and MRC (as features) when compared to the same AP using only a single antenna for transmit and receive (effectively simulating a 1x1 chip)?   


Options are :

  • 2 Rx or Tx chains = approx 4-6.5 dBi gain 3 Rx or Tx chains = approx 7-10 dBi gain 4 Rx or Tx chains = approx 10-12 dBi gain
  • 2 Rx or Tx chains = 1 dBi gain 3 Rx or Tx chains = 2 dBi gain 4 Rx or Tx chains = 3 dBi gain
  • 2 Rx or Tx chains = 3 dBi gain 3 Rx or Tx chains = approx 5 dBi gain 4 Rx or Tx chains = 6 dBi gain
  • 2 Rx or Tx chains = 3 dBi gain 3 Rx or Tx chains = 6 dBi gain 4 Rx or Tx chains = 9 dBi gain

Answer : 2 Rx or Tx chains = 3 dBi gain 3 Rx or Tx chains = approx 5 dBi gain 4 Rx or Tx chains = 6 dBi gain

Of the following antenna connector types, which one is the smallest? 


Options are :

  • N Connector
  • Male N Connector
  • MC Connector
  • RP-TNC

Answer : MC Connector

Given: A WLAN controller is connected to ABC Company's core layer 3 Ethernet switch with an IEEE 802.1Q trunk connection. The WLAN controller's native VLAN is VLAN 6 and its IP address is 10.0.14.2 /24. Lightweight APs supporting centralized forwarding are connected to the network on VLANs 7, 8, and 9, and they each build a Layer 3 tunnel back to the WLAN controller's IP address.

The dynamically assigned IP addresses received by each AP from a DHCP server will be ________________. 


Options are :

  • Associated with VLAN 1, the default VLAN for new APs
  • Associated with the native VLAN of the WLAN controller.
  • Associated with the VLAN on which they are connected
  • Associated with a non-routable VLAN until the MAC address of the AP is removed from the controller's MAC filter

Answer : Associated with the VLAN on which they are connected

Assume that your network operates in a regulatory domain that allows use of the entire 5 GHz space allowed in the 802.11ac amendment. In your upcoming 802.11ac deployment, you would like to take advantage of the performance improvements that result from channel bonding. However, after extensive testing, you have determined that your mission-critical WLAN should not use channels requiring DFS support.

Given those two criteria (enable channel bonding and disable DFS channels), in the 5 GHz spectrum, how many non-overlapping 40 MHz channels will your system be able to use?   


Options are :

  • 4
  • 6
  • 2
  • 3

Answer : 4

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