Electrical Components in Arduino

Electrical Components are nothing but small devices that can perform small electrical tasks. Different types of components can be connected to each other and integrated to form a bigger form of device to perform more complicated tasks.

Why electrical components?

If there were no electrical components, that it would never be possible to manipulate current and voltages and thus no electrical devices would exist even. The PC or cell phone or tablet, you are using right now to read this article, is an example of a complicated integration of different electrical components.

Why should we learn about components while learning Arduino?

Of course, your Arduino is also integrated electrical hardware. But that's not the reason to learn.

The reason is, to apply Arduino in a different project, you will connect different electrical components to your Arduino. Such as: LED, Motors, Displays, Potentiometers, etc.

If, you don't have an idea about electrical components, do you think, that you can be a better device maker?

Basic Idea about Current, Voltage and Resistances

Current:

Current is nothing, but the flow of electrons through any conductor which permits the flow of electrons through it. For example, a copper wire.

The Standard Unit of current is Ampere and is denoted by the letter I.

Types of Current:

(1) Direct Current: Direct current is the one that does not change its phase. That is, the terminal designated as minus(-) will continue to be minus. And the terminal designated as plus(+) will continue to be plus, as long as power is drawn from the source. Ex: Current from a Pencil Battery you use in your wall clock.

(2) Alternating Current : Alternating current is the one that keeps changing its phase with respect to time. That is, one cannot say directly, which terminal is positive and which one is negative. For example the power supply for your home appliances. Suppose, the AC current is in 50 Hz, it means, the terminals changes its phase 50 times in one Second.

Voltage:

Voltage is nothing but the potential difference between two terminals. For example: if one terminal is at 0 potential and another is at 12 potential. The difference is 12-0 = 12. So, we call that the two terminal possesses 12 volts.

Voltage should always be measured with two references- positive(+) and negative (-).

The standard unit of Voltage in Volts. And it denoted by the letter V

Resistance

Electrical Resistance is nothing but a virtue by which a conductor can oppose the flow of electrons through it.

The standard unit is Ohm.

The relation between Current, Voltage, and Resistance

V= IR.

V= Voltage.

I = current flowing through the conductor.

R= Resistance of the conductor.

Electrical Components to learn

LED :

LED (Light Emitting Diodes). This component contains two terminals inside, and when voltage is supplied into it, it produces light. Add image here...

Resistors :

Resistors are components that create resistance for the current flow. This component can be used to feed the desired amount of electrical current into our circuit or any other component. add image here....

Diodes :

Diodes are components that allow a current to flow only in one direction. This component can be used to make such arrangements in circuits where current should flow only in one direction. Another major use of Diodes is to convert Alternating current into Direct Current. (AC to DC). add image here...

Potentiometers :

Potentiometers are components that can offer variable resistance. This kind of component consists of a resistive material and a rotating Wiper can move over it, to generate different values of resistances. This can be used when we need variable resistances. Add image here..

Transistors :

This component has three terminal and mostly uses a switching element. It has different applications such as amplifying current, voltage regulations, etc. Add image here..

Battery :

A battery is an electrical component, which can be used to feed power into our circuits. Only DC current can be drawn from a battery.

Capacitor :

Capacitors are components that can store a few amount charge for a limited amount of time. This component has different applications in a circuit- such as voltage stabilization circuits, current filtering circuit, AC noise cancellations, etc. Add image here..

Relay :

A relay is a control device for a single output or multiple outputs. A relay should be fed with an external power source. This component is used to drive or operate different other devices which may require different voltages.

IC (Integrated Circuits):

IC are integrated circuits. The components we have studied so far can be integrated and minimized to make a black box device, which is handy, we call it IC. For example, 555 Timer IC. add image here...

Inductor :

This component produces inductance. add image here..

Antenna :

This is a component, usually in the form of a vertical wire, can be used to transmit and receive signals. add image here..

Sensors :

Sensors are components or integrated components that are developed to sense a parameter and produce an output. Most of the sensors will produce an analog output, because, the output value decides the degree of the parameter. For example: A temperature sensor will give move voltage output if the temperature into which it is exposed it more, and vice-versa.

Connectors

Connectors are anything that can connect two or more electrical components. There are different types of connectors in the electrical world. We shall discuss the needed one.

Bread Board:

This is a board into which electrical components can be connected and tested. This is for a temporary purpose and can be used for different projects and mainly used to create a prototype of a project.

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As shown in the above board. All the above and below holes are horizontally connected internally. And the middle holes, the holes are connected vertically internally.

Jumper Wires:

These are the wires which are used to connect different components. For example, connecting a sensor with the Arduino may require jumper wires.

There are three different types of jumper wires.

  • Male to male
  • Male to Female
  • Female to female.

Types of Sensors

Temperature Sensor:

This sensor is used to sense or measure temperature. The sensor outputs an analog voltage and the value of the voltage is proportional to the degree of the temperature it senses.

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The application of temperature sensor lies in different fields, such as controlling the fan or Air conditional as per the temperature outside, weather forecasting, etc.

PIR Sensor

Passive Infrared Sensor is a sensor that can detect infrared emissions from any moving objects in front of it. It consists of a fresnel lens that focuses all the infrared rays to fall into the pyroelectric material inside the sensor.

PIR sensors can be used for motion sensing, etc.

Ultrasonic Sensor

This is the type of sensor which has two parts in it. One is the ultrasonic transmitter and the other is the ultrasonic receiver. The transmitter will transmit ultrasonic sound waves.

When the waves reach back after encountering any obstacle, the time of transmission and time of reception of the wave is calculated and it can be measured whether there is an obstacle, or if any, then what is the distance of the object from the sensor.

This sensor can be used to measure the depth of an area, distance of an object, etc.

Proximity Sensor

This type of sensor can detect the presence of an object.

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